The JOTA-JOTI FUNcube Challenge

AMSAT-UK FUNcube Mission Patch Rev4 20100609

AMSAT-UK FUNcube Mission Patch

In space, satellites can be found. A recent development in this area are the “CubeSat” satellites.

Normal satellites typically have a size ranging from that of a washing machine to a small truck.

CubeSats have the size of a milk-carton!

The JOTA-JOTI FUNcube Challenge focuses on the FUNcube-1 (AO-73) CubeSat satellite. During the Jamboree On The Air (JOTA-JOTI) on October 19-21, a special, coded, message will be transmitted. This message can be received with a simple 2m handheld antenna, e.g. HB9CV, a small yagi or even a vertical, and a SDR-dongle or any SSB radio for 2m. The data is sent by the satellite on its telemetry channel of 145.935 MHz (1200bd BPSK modulated). You will need to set your receiver to Upper Side Band (USB). If you use a FUNcube dongle, you can directly receive the satellite.

The message is coded using the Enigma cipher machine. The deciphering key and Enigma settings can be obtained by answering the questions below.

The message sent by the satellite follows the following format: JOTA JOTI START coded message STOP

Your deciphered message can be mailed to: JJ.Satellite.Challenge (at) kitbuilding.org ( (at)=@)

The mail should contain your name, age, country and Scout group name and the correct answer!

AO-73 (FUNcube-1) – Image credit Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG

If you have any pictures of the reception of the satellite with your group, this would also be highly appreciated, we would love to see how you did it!

If your answer is right and mailed before the 1st of November 2018, you will participate in a raffle.

The winner will get some products from www.kitbuilding.org
Have a lot of fun and good luck! Best 73s, Wouter PA3WEG and Jeroen PE1RGE

Information about the FUNcube1 can be found at:
https://funcube.org.uk/
https://www.amsat.org/two-way-satellites/ao-73-funcube-1/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FUNcube-1

Possible online Enigma coding machines:
http://users.telenet.be/d.rijmenants/en/enigmasim.htm
https://people.physik.hu-berlin.de/~palloks/js/enigma/enigma-i+m3_v16.html

Background information on the Enigma can be found here:
http://www.cryptomuseum.com/crypto/enigma/

The message is coded with an Enigma M3, Navy version. Plugboard (Steckerbrett) is not used!!

FUNcube-1 Launch Day Mug

The questions for obtaining the deciphering key:

1.) A geostationary satellite has an altitude above the earths surface of (approximately):
A. 20200 km or 12600 miles – First rotor is rotor III
B. 35786 km or 22236 miles – First rotor is rotor V
C. 42164 km or 26199 miles – First rotor is rotor VII

2.) NASA has selected over 300 astronauts since 1959,
A. None of them was ever active in Scouting – First rotor alphabet setting (ringstellung) A
B. Not more than 37 of them were active in Scouting – First rotor alphabet setting
(ringstellung) F
C. More than 200 were/are active in Scouting – First rotor alphabet setting (ringstellung) S

3.) The average distance between the moon and the earth is:
A. 1738 km or 1080 miles – First rotor initial setting (grundstellung) D
B. 12742 km or 7918 miles – First rotor initial setting (grundstellung) G
C. 385001 km or 239228 miles – First rotor initial setting (grundstellung) H

4.) AMSAT, an organisation involved in launching a number of radio amateur satellites was founded in:
A. 1969 – Second rotor is rotor II
B. 1978 – Second rotor is rotor VI
C. 1991 – Second rotor is rotor VIII

5.) As satellites are flying extremely high in the sky, at least 100 Watts of transmit power is needed to establish communication with or through a satellite. Is this true or false?
A. True – Second rotor alphabet setting (ringstellung) D
B. False – Second rotor alphabet setting (ringstellung) C

6.) The Russian Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite orbiting around the earth. When was this satellite launched?
A. October 4th, 1957 – Second rotor initial setting (grundstellung) A
B. January 31st, 1958 – Second rotor initial setting (grundstellung) G
C. July 20th, 1969 – Second rotor initial setting (grundstellung) F

7.) The abbreviation OSCAR means:
A. Open Source Communication for Amateur Radio – Third rotor is rotor III
B. Outer Space Charge – free Amateur Radio – Third rotor is rotor IV
C. Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio – Third rotor is rotor I

8.) Signals from a satellite are characterized by Doppler-shift, this means:
A. The frequency of the transmitted signal appears to be higher when the satellite is moving towards you. – Third rotor alphabet setting (ringstellung) T
B. The frequency of the transmitted signal appears to be lower when the satellite is moving towards you. – Third rotor alphabet setting (ringstellung) U

9.) If a radio amateur wants to communicate through satellites he/she needs to do an additional exam in order to obtain a special license, the Amateur Radio Operator License (AROL). True or false?
A. True – Third rotor initial setting (grundstellung) R
B. False – Third rotor initial setting (grundstellung) M

10.) Radio amateurs can make radio contact with the ISS (International Space Station)?
A. Yes – Reflector B
B. No – Reflector C

Download PDF of the JOTA-JOTI 2018_FUNcube_Challenge

FUNcube operations

AO-73 (FUNcube-1) – Image credit Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG

FUNcube-1

As you will know, AO73/FUNcube-1 has been in full sunlight for over one month and has been transmitting continuously high power telemetry for most of that time. This has now been changed to full time amateur mode so the transponder is once again available. With the more stable on board temperatures being experienced, this means that the transponder frequencies are also now more stable. We expect to leave it in this mode for some weeks so that the team can determine whether or not the currents flowing from the solar panels are having any noticeable effect on the spin period.

FUNcube-2

The FUNcube-2 transponder on EO-88/UKube-1 continues to be in full time transponder mode. There are occasional breaks in service for a few seconds when the OBC reboots and the other onboard transmitter sends its CW beacon.

FUNcube-3 on Nayif-1

EO88/Nayif-1 continues to perform nominally with high power telemetry when in sunlight and amateur mode when in eclipse.

With their slightly different orbital characteristics it is useful that AO73 is now the early bird, EO88 comes over in the mid morning and UKube provides coverage in the afternoon.

We have been suffering from some network issues in relation to uploading the telemetry from the Dashboards to the Data Warehouse over the past couple of weeks. Apologies for this, but hopefully everything is now stable again. ie fingers are still crossed. Thank you for all the telemetry that you upload.

Like many other teams, we are presently waiting for the next Space-X launch from Vandenberg which is expected to be carrying a number of new amateur payloads, These will provide additional transponder and STEM capabilities for the amateur satellite service. Exciting times ahead.

73 Graham G3VZV

The FUNcube Team will be giving a presentation on JY1Sat and FUNcube Next at the AMSAT-UK Colloquium, part of the RSGB Convention, at the Kents Park Conference Centre, Timbold Drive, Milton Keynes, MK7 6BZ. Colloquium presentations will be in Lecture Room 5. Download the programme schedule from
http://rsgb.org/main/about-us/rsgb-convention/rsgb-convention-programme/

Tickets to the event are available at the door details at
http://rsgb.org/main/about-us/rsgb-convention/

There will be a live stream of the Colloquium presentations at https://batc.org.uk/live/

AO-73 / FUNcube-1 Illumination – Update January 15, 2018

Face of the SunThe time when AO-73 enters continuous sunlight, for the first time, is fast approaching. Current estimates show that this will commence on February 6th and last through until March 13th.

Obviously, the autonomous switching system that the spacecraft has been using to switch between amateur mode, with the transponder on in eclipse and educational mode with high power telemetry only in sunlight, will no longer work.

Already the periods of eclipse are reducing quite rapidly and we are therefore planning for manual mode switching to take be undertaken. This will start from the week beginning Jan 21st and will follow this initial plan.

Wednesday evening (UTC) or Thursday morning – switch to full time amateur mode – ie transponder on with low power telemetry.

Sunday evening (UTC) or Monday morning – switch to full time educational mode with high power telemetry only.

So if you are planning school demonstrations or particular DXpeditions please take this new schedule into account.

The team may have to flex this plan with experience as this situation was not allowed for in the original mission plan!

AO-73 / FUNcube-1 spin period and illumination December 2017
https://amsat-uk.org/2017/12/03/ao73-spin-period-illumination/

FUNcube Website https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/

FUNcube Yahoo Group https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/yahoo-group/

FUNcube Forum https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/funcube-forum/

AO-73 / FUNcube-1 spin period and illumination

AO73 / FUNcube-1 Spin Period

AO-73 / FUNcube-1 Spin Period

The attitude of AO-73 / FUNcube-1 is passively stabilised using the traditional magnet and two hysteresis rods. Since the launch over four years ago we have been intrigued with the resultant actual spin rate/period which seems to vary over time for reasons that have not yet been properly explained.

This graphic, which has been developed from telemetry received and maintained by Colin VK5HI, and his team, shows the variations in some detail. Explanations would be gratefully received.

Mike, DK3WN’s, illum.exe software showing predicted duration of the first period

Mike, DK3WN’s, illum.exe software showing predicted duration of the first period

As it is expected that illumination levels may be having an influence, the next few months and years will prove interesting. The spacecraft will be entering periods of continuous sunlight. Initially this will be for a six-week period but then for periods of up to nine months!

AO-73 / FUNcube-1 celebrates its 4th birthday https://amsat-uk.org/2017/11/21/funcube-1-celebrates-4th-birthday/

FUNcube Website https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/

FUNcube Yahoo Group https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/yahoo-group/

FUNcube Forum https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/funcube-forum/

FUNcube-1 celebrates its 4th birthday

Final gluing of FUNcube-1 bolt by Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG – Image credit Gerard Aalbers

Final gluing of FUNcube-1 bolt by Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG – Image credit Gerard Aalbers

Today, November 21st 2017, marks the fourth birthday for FUNcube-1 (AO-73) in orbit.

FUNcube-1 was launched at 07:10 UTC on November 21st 2013 and its first signals were received immediately after deployment over the Indian Ocean by amateurs in South Africa. Since then it has been operating continuously in either its education mode or, with the transponder active, in amateur mode when in eclipse and at weekends.

AMSAT-UK FUNcube Mission Patch Rev4 20100609

AMSAT-UK FUNcube Mission Patch

The spacecraft has spent the four years in space orbiting the earth at between 640 and 580 km and has now traveled around the earth more than 20,000 times. That represents a distance traveled of approaching 500 million miles.

Up to now, each of the orbits has been spilt approximately 65% in sunlight and 35% in eclipse. This has resulted in the temperatures inside the small spacecraft varying by about 25° C during each orbit.

During the recent AMSAT-UK Colloquium, Wouter Weggelaar, PA3WEG, in his presentation about the FUNcube project mentioned that the power available from the solar panels has been slowly increasing since launch. This observation led the team to do some further investigations as to the cause.

Although the launch was into a nominally Sun Synchronous orbit, over time this has drifted and the spacecraft is now entering a period when it will be in the sun for longer periods during each orbit. The exact details are still being determined, but it seems likely that, starting from January 2018, there will be periods when the spacecraft will be in the sun for all, or almost all, of its orbits.

FUNcube-1 temperature rise

FUNcube-1 temperature rise

This means that the on-board temperatures will be much higher than we have previously experienced in flight, although we have some test records from pre-flight thermal air testing that were undertaken after integration.

The key will be to discover what the equilibrium temperature will be internally. For comparison, AO85 has already “enjoyed” periods of full sun and its internal temperatures have reached up to around 55° C.

So the next few months will be quite an exciting time for the team! We remain extremely grateful to everyone is using the spacecraft for both its educational and amateur missions. Of course we are also very very grateful to those who are downloading the telemetry and uploading the data to the Data Warehouse. It continues to provide a unique record of “life on board” a 1U CubeSat in space.

Watch the FUNcube presentation by Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG

Get your 73 on 73 Award, details at https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/73-on-73-award/

AO-73 (FUNcube-1) website https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/funcube-website/

FUNcube Yahoo Group https://amsat-uk.org/funcube/yahoo-group/

ZACUBE-1, FUNcube-1 and HiNCube in the deployment pod - Image credit Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG

ZACUBE-1, FUNcube-1 and HiNCube in the deployment pod – Image credit Wouter Weggelaar PA3WEG